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A sensitive period is a [child’s] burning fire of interest in something, during the period of time that a child acquires a new specific skill. ~Mary Ellen Maunz

Sensitive Periods www.ageofmontessori.org
Ten Secrets of Montessori

Maria Montessori uncovered secrets–ten to be exact. Lucky for us, Mary Ellen Maunz, M. Ed., founder and Program Director of Age of Montessori, is willing to share the treasure of information within these secrets, and to explain exactly what they can mean to you and your children. With these ten secrets, you will gain a rich understanding of the framework beneath the Montessori Method. Maria Montessori developed more than a revolutionary educational method; she discovered the true inner workings of the child’s mind. These ten secrets are based on her lifetime of observing children and recognizing what they really need to thrive.

Secret #4: Sensitive Periods

Through her years of study and observation, Maria Montessori discovered what she called “sensitive periods.” Sensitive periods are developmental windows of opportunity during which the child can learn specific concepts more easily and naturally than at any other time in their lives. A child in the midst of a sensitive period will show an especially strong interest or inclination toward certain activities or lessons.

Sensitive Periods Addressing Problem Behaviors ageofmontessori.org
“At such a time everything is easy; all is life and enthusiasm.”

It is this sensibility [sensitive periods] which enables a child to come into contact with the external world in a particularly intense manner. Every effort marks an increase in power. ~ Maria Montessori

This is a big reason why the Montessori method is based on “child-led” learning. To allow children to follow their interests and instincts is to maximize the power of these sensitive periods. Conversely, if the opportunity of the sensitive periods is missed, it can never again be recaptured. Fortunately, we do know when certain sensitive periods are likely, thanks to the wisdom of Maria Montessori. Knowing what to expect and when, allows us (parents, teachers, grandparents, and caregivers) to anticipate and provide the necessary environment to fulfill the child’s needs.

I observed little children; I sensed their needs; I tried to fulfill them; they call that the Montessori Method. ~ Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori recognized and categorized eleven basic sensitive periods of development:Sensitive Periods www.ageofmontessori.org

  • Movement
  • Math patterns
  • Emotional control
  • Order
  • Interest in small objects
  • Vocabulary
  • Sensations
  • Letter shapes and sounds
  • Music
  • Writing
  • Reading

Movement: Children are born with limited control of movement, but gain rapidly in areas of both gross and fine motor control. As they learn to use their bodies, children are also developing cognitive abilities.

The hands are the instruments of man’s intelligence. ~ Maria Montessori

Math Patterns: Incredible as it may seem, babies are born with mathematical minds. Montessori discovered that babies come into this world naturally hardwired to learn mathematics.

Emotional Control: Babies learn about relationships, communication, and emotional control from the moment they are born.

Need for Order: Very young children (6 months to 3 years) have an innate need for order. It is a deep psychological need. Many parents don’t realize it is there, and with good reason. Certainly most of us parents have watched our little ones behaving in ways that seem anything but orderly. But Montessorians have proven, again and again, that once the standard is set, the child’s internal desire for order is activated. Also, some of the unruly tantrums we witness are actually the result of the child’s sense of order being disrupted.

Sensitive Periods Help Child Access Inner Teacher ageofmontessori.org
Children between one and four are experiencing a sensitive period for small objects. This will ultimately lead to the development of fine motor control and the pincer grasp: fundamentals for writing.

Interest in Small Objects: Children between one and four years old are experiencing an intense sensitive period for small objects. This interest will ultimately lead to the development of fine motor control and the pincer grasp. These are fundamentals for writing and many other important skills.

Vocabulary: Children come into this world hard-wired for learning language. This inborn tendency makes the acquisition of language especially easy for children under six years old.

To talk is in the nature of man. ~ Maria Montessori

Special Epoch for Sensation: Children learn more easily and effectively through hands-on, physical sensation than by just watching or listening to a lesson. This is due to the sensitive period Montessori called the “special epoch for sensation.”

Letter shapes and sounds. Children also become very sensitive to and interested in letter shapes and sounds. Between the ages of two and a half and five years, children are drawn to activities such as tracing textured (sandpaper) letters with their fingers and correlating the sound of the letter with its shape.

The Letters are a stimulus, which illustrate the spoken language already in the mind of the child. ~Maria Montessori

Music: Around age three, children experience a sensitive period for learning rhythm, pitch, melody, and more. Music develops the brain, leading to academic, social, and emotional growth.

Writing and Reading: Early literacy development is about the preparation of the child’s mind. Young children are open to the right information at the right time. When children are given lessons, materials, and activities as they are ready for them, learning to read is a natural, continuous progression. This is one of the advantages of the Montessori Method. In the Montessori prepared environment, children choose from appropriate materials based on their own interests and readiness.

Would you like to learn more about the child’s sensitive periods of development? Join us for Age of Montessori’s 2-week online, interactive course: Discovering the Child’s Sensitive Periods. This short course is great for parents and teachers alike!

Check out: Ahhh! Discovering the Child’s Sensitive Periods – a 2-week online, interactive course


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  1. Hi, thank you for this great article— it’s so informative and helpful. My second son is 8 months now and I completely missed the sensitive period for weaning. I am struggling with getting my toddler insterested in solids. Is there any advice you can offer?

    I have a first weaning table and all the proper materials: placemat, child sized table ware, glasses, etc. he just has zero interest.

    I think what’s frustrating me the most Is that I followed Montessori to a T with my first son— from the teaspoon of juice to the Montessori first meal and the results have been INCREDIBLE (he’s 5 now). Thank you

    1. Not to worry. There are sensitive periods where learning is most ideal, but it doesn’t mean the child won’t learn outside of that sensitive period. It just may be a little bit more challenging. Keep working on introducing the materials and food a bit each day, remembering not to allow his resistance to lead you into a power struggle, and you will get him eating solids before too long. If he refuses, simply say something like, “That’s ok. Looks like you aren’t ready YET.” That word “yet”, sends the message that it’s something you will be moving towards, but allows him to take it at his own pace. And just continue to introduce it daily (whatever amount feels comfortable for you).

      Age of Montessori Blogger

  2. Hi and thank you for this article. I am Montessori trained but because of financial circumstances have been working in a traditional school system. I am working on blending both with an emphasis on the Montessori method (I need to appease the director and do group lessons, worksheets and crafts – with 2 to 3 year olds!!)

    Anyway, my question is how can I satisfy the Interest in Small Objects sensitive period which I am all to familiar with when state regulations at our school make me put everything through a toilet paper tube. Bean/pasta/pebbles/etc are all off limits in the toddler environment. I am also finding my hands tied at sensory table work.

    Help!!! Any material substitutions? — Amy.

  3. Hi. Thanks for this great article.I’m a mom of five. My first so will be 8 years old on 3 months, the next three are girls, soon to be 7, 6 and 4. The fifth will be 1yr old next month. I’ve been reading a lot about Montessori,band frankly I wish I had known about this much earlier. My older kids are definitely past their sensitive period for most things. Order is an issue especially.
    Most articles I’ve read are focused on Montessori from birth. What about starting at the elementary level? I’d like to know if it’s still possible to achieve good result. And lastly how do I get started with Montessori

    1. Greetings!

      Thanks for your email. So glad you are finding more about Montessori. While older children do not have the deep need for order as the younger children do, it is still entirely possible to help them gain more order in their lives.

      Try to organize their bedrooms and work spaces with realistic space for toys, books, crafts, homework, etc. Open bookshelves vs. toy boxes are a good start. Make sure your children fold and put away their own laundry and get used to knowing that each thing has a place. Set a standard that what is taken out to use gets put back. It becomes a habit. (That may mean the adults in the house need to adopt similar standards!)

      Having them help around the house and yard with simple chores is also helpful so they feel a part of the family’s necessities to keep everything together. Maybe even have a family meeting and outline the jobs that need to be done daily (like making the bed, putting away toys, emptying trash etc.) weekly (such as vacuuming or sweeping, watering the garden etc.) Some families rotate some jobs among the children.

      Some people naturally gravitate to neatness while others, even some with a Montessori background from the start seem to trail a mess wherever they live. (I know this because one of my children, who grew up in Montessori schools and home is in her late 20s and lives in a mess but she knows where everything is…her Dad’s closet and work space were like that but I’m not at all like that.)

      We have some great webinars about all different ages and stages of Montessori. Check our website. We also have short courses that may be of great help if you are going to work with your children at home.

      Warm regards and best of luck in your new steps forward!
      Mary Ellen Maunz, M.Ed.

  4. Thank you for the insightful article.
    I want to refer to it, can you provide the name of the writer and date of publication?

    Kind Regards,


    1. You’re welcome, Marina.
      Thanks for referencing it: the author is a blogger, Emily Johnsen who wrote this article for us. And it was published February 11, 2016.

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